Friday, July 31, 2009

Intensive Sport and Oxygen beat Cancer...الرياضة المكثفة والأوكسجين تحمي من السرطان


Sfficient quantity of inhaling oxygen and intense exercise daily Could contribute to reduce risk of
cancer. According to the "Health Day News" on Wednesday that a new study by Finnish researchers, and included 2560 men aged between 42 and 61 years, showed that all participants in the study were healthy, the body was not one of them before the cancer, but during the follow-up to those for the 16 years 181 people have died because of cancer.
It was the follow-up to the health situation of these people for more than a year to determine the impact of exercise on the prevention of cancer. The researchers in the study, published on the website of the British Journal of Sports Medicine, the study participants who were engaged in sports, whether moderately or heavily reduced the infection rate of cancer by 50%. Researchers also noted that as the amount of air entering the lungs through a major exercise, the decline in the probability of death due to cancer of the lungs and intestines, stomach, and after taking into account factors such as age, body mass index, smoking and alcohol, dealing with vegetables and fruit.



الرياضة المكثفة والأوكسجين يبعدان السرطان



يمكن أن يساهم تنشق كمية كافية من الأوكسجين وممارسة الرياضة المكثفة يومياً، في تخفيض خطر الإصابة بمرض السرطان. وذكر موقع "هلث داي نيوز" يوم الأربعاء أن دراسة جديدة أعدها باحثون فنلنديون وضمت 2560 رجلاً تتراوح أعمارهم ما بين 42 و61 سنة، أظهرت ان جميع المشاركين في الدراسة كانوا أصحاء الجسم ولم يصب أحد فيهم من قبل بمرض السرطان، ولكن خلال المتابعة الصحية لهؤلاء لفترة 16 سنة مات منهم 181 شخصا بسبب السرطان.
وتمت متابعة الحالة الصحية لهؤلاء الاشخاص لفترة تزيد عن السنة من أجل معرفة تأثير التمارين الرياضية على الوقاية من السرطان. وتبيّن للباحثين في الدارسة التي نشرت على موقع المجلة البريطانية للرياضة والطب، ان المشاركين في الدراسة الذين كانوا يمارسون الرياضة سواء باعتدال أو بشكل مكثف انخفض معدل إصابتهم بمرض السرطان بنسبة 50%. كما لاحظ الباحثون أنه كلما كانت كمية الهواء التي تدخل الرئتين كبيرة خلال التمارين الرياضية، كلما تراجع احتمال الوفاة بسبب سرطان الرئتين والأمعاء والمعدة، وذلك بعد الأخذ في الاعتبار عوامل مثل العمر ومؤشر كتلة الجسم والتدخين والكحول وتناول الخضار والفاكهة

Wednesday, July 29, 2009

Thomas A. Swift's Electric Rifle ( TASER)


A Taser is an electroshock weapon that uses electrical current to disrupt voluntary control of muscles. Its manufacturer, Taser International, calls the effects "neuromuscular incapacitation" and device's mechanism "Electro-Muscular Disruption (EMD) technology". Someone struck by a Taser experiences stimulation of his or her sensory nerves and motor nerves, resulting in strong involuntary muscle contractions. Tasers do not rely only on pain compliance, except when used in Drive Stun mode, and are thus preferred by some law enforcement over non-Taser stun guns and other electronic control weapons. At the present time, there are two main police models, the M26 and X26. Both come with various accessories, including a laser sight and optional mounted digital video camera that can record in low-light situations. Taser International is also marketing a civilian model called the C2. On 27 July 2009, Taser introduced the X3, capable of subduing 3 suspects without reload.

Tasers were introduced as less-lethal weapons to be used by police to subdue fleeing, belligerent, or potentially dangerous subjects, often when what they consider to be a more lethal weapon would have otherwise been used. The use of Tasers has become controversial following instances of Taser use that have resulted in serious injury and death

Name
Taser is an acronym, named for a fictional weapon: Thomas A. Swift's Electric Rifle. Taser is a registered trademark. It has prompted a backformed verb to tase, which means to use a Taser on; however, to taser is also commonly used.


History
Jack Cover, a NASA researcher, began developing the Taser in 1969. By 1974, Cover had completed the device, which he named after his childhood hero Tom Swift. The Taser Public Defender used gunpowder as its propellant, which led the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms to classify it as a firearm in 1976. In 1991, a Taser supplied by Tasertron to the Los Angeles Police Department failed to subdue Rodney King. Its lack of effectiveness was blamed on a faulty battery.

Taser International CEO Rick Smith has testified in a Taser-related lawsuit that the catalyst for the development of the device was the "shooting death of two of his high school acquaintances" by a "guy with a legally licensed gun who lost his temper." In 1993, Rick Smith and his brother Tim began to investigate what they called "safer use of force option[s] for citizens and law enforcement." At their Scottsdale, Arizona facilities, the brothers worked with the "... original TASER inventor, Jack Cover" to develop a "non-firearm TASER electronic control device." The 1994 AIR TASER Model 34000 had an "anti-felon identification (AFID) system" to prevent the likelihood that the device would be used by criminals; upon use, it released many small pieces of paper containing the serial number of the Taser device. The US firearms regulator, the ATF, stated that the AIR TASER was not a firearm. In 1999, Taser International developed an "ergonomically handgun shaped device called the ADVANCED TASER M-series systems" which used a "patented neuromuscular incapacitation (NMI) technology." In May 2003, Taser International released a new weapon called the TASER X26, which used "Shaped Pulse Technology." On July 27, 2009 Taser International relasead a new type of taser called the X3 which can shock 3 people without reloading the cartridge.


Function

The M-26 Taser, the United States military version of a commercial TaserThe Taser fires two small dart-like electrodes, which stay connected to the main unit by conductive wire as they are propelled by small compressed nitrogen charges similar to some air gun or paintball marker propellants. The air cartridge contains a pair of electrodes and propellant for a single shot and is replaced after each use. There are a number of cartridges designated by range, with the maximum at 35 feet (10.6 m). Cartridges available to non-law enforcement consumers are limited to 15 feet (4.5 m). The electrodes are pointed to penetrate clothing and barbed to prevent removal once in place. Earlier Taser models had difficulty in penetrating thick clothing, but newer versions (X26, C2) use a "shaped pulse" that increases effectiveness in the presence of barriers.


Drive Stun

A Taser, with cartridge removed, making an electric arc between its two electrodesSome Taser models, particularly those used by police departments, also have a "Drive Stun" capability, where the Taser is held against the target without firing the projectiles, and is intended to cause pain without incapacitating the target. "Drive Stun" is "the process of using the EMD weapon [Taser] as a pain compliance technique. This is done by activating the EMD and placing it against an individual’s body. This can be done without an air cartridge in place or after an air cartridge has been deployed."

A Las Vegas police document says "The Drive Stun causes significant localized pain in the area touched by the Taser, but does not have a significant effect on the central nervous system. The Drive Stun does not incapacitate a subject but may assist in taking a subject into custody." "Drive Stun" was used in the UCLA Taser incident and the University of Florida Taser incident. It is also known as "dry tasing", "contact tasing", or "drive tasing".

Amnesty International has expressed particular concern about Drive Stun, noting that "… the potential to use TASERs in drive-stun mode — where they are used as 'pain compliance' tools when individuals are already effectively in custody — and the capacity to inflict multiple and prolonged shocks, renders the weapons inherently open to abuse."


Accessories
The TASER CAM is a specialized device designed for the Taser X26 to record audio and video when the Taser's safety is disengaged. The CAM is integrated into a battery pack and does not interfere with the Taser's existing function.


Users
Taser use in Phoenix increased from 71 in the year 2002 to 164 in the year 2003. In addition, the number of officer-involved shootings decreased by seven during this time period.[citation needed] In Houston, however, police shootings did not decline after the deployment of thousands of Tasers.

According to the analysis of the first 900 police Taser incidents by the Houston Chronicle, no crime was being committed and no person was charged in 350 of those cases. In addition, it has been reported that the Houston Police Department has "shot, wounded, and killed as many people as before the widespread use of the stun guns" and has used Tasers in situations that would not warrant lethal or violent force, such as "traffic stops, disturbance and nuisance complaints, and reports of suspicious people." In Portland, Oregon, meanwhile, police found that 25 to 30 percent of the situations in which a Taser was employed met the criteria for the use of deadly force.

Although Tasers were originally proposed as alternatives to lethal force, they have entered routine use as a way to incapacitate suspects or as a "pain compliance" method at times when the use of firearms would not be justifiable. The American Civil Liberties Union alleges that, since 1999, at least 148 people have died in the United States and Canada after being shocked with Tasers by police officers.Police departments counter that while Tasers were used to subdue these individuals, their in-custody deaths were un-related to their encounter, and could have likely been caused by more traditional police impact weapons (like batons).

A recent development has included marketing Tasers to the general public. A line of pink Tasers are specifically being marketed for women. The Taser website states "Who says safety can't be stylish?" in reference to its "latest designer TASER C2 colors" and patterns, which include leopard print patterns and a range of colors.


Legality

Canada
According to previous interpretation of the Firearms Act, Tasers were considered to be "prohibited weapons" and could be used only by members of law-enforcement agencies after they were imported into the country under a special permit. The possession of restricted weapons must be licensed by the RCMP Canadian Firearms Program unless exempted by law. A 2008 review of the Firearms Act found that the act classifies "the Taser Public Defender and any variant or modified version of it" as "prohibited firearms". However, Canadian police forces typically treat Tasers as "prohibited weapons", inconsistent with the restrictions on firearms.

The direct source for this information comes from an independent report produced by Compliance Strategy Group for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. The report is called An Independent Review of the Adoption and Use of Conducted Energy Weapons by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. In the report that is available through access to information, the authors argued that the CEW was, for several years after its adoption by the RCMP, erroneously characterized as a prohibited "weapon" under the Criminal Code, as opposed to a prohibited "firearm." This misunderstanding was subsequently incorporated into the RCMP's operational policies and procedures as well as those of other police services in Canada. While the most recent RCMP operational manual, completed in 2007, correctly refers to the CEW as a prohibited firearm, a number of consequences of this error in classification remain to be dealt with by both the RCMP and other Canadian police services. Consequently, it could be argued the police in Canada may not have had the proper authority under their provincial policing Acts and Regulation to use the CEW in the first place. The point of unauthorized use by the police was also raised by Dirk Ryneveld, British Columbia's Police Complaint Commissioner at the Braidwood inquiry on June 25, 2008.


Estonia
Tasers are allowed to be used by the police force (both military and civilian). A civilian person may not possess a Taser because it is considered a torture device in the hands of an ordinary person. Due to shootings in Finland, US, Germany and other countries the parliament of Estonia passed a new act of weapons which is considered even more serious than the previous act.


France
Tasers are used by the French National Police (Police Nationale) and Gendarmerie. Since September 2008, they have also been available to local police.


Hong Kong
Under HK Laws. Chap 238 Firearms and Ammunition Ordinance, "any portable device which is designed or adapted to stun or disable a person by means of an electric shock applied either with or without direct contact with that person" is considered as 'arms' and therefore, the importation, possession and exportation of Tasers require a license by the Hong Kong Police Force which would otherwise be illegal and carries penalties up to a fine of $100,000 and 14 years in jail.


Israel
Israeli police approved using Tasers. As of 16 Feb 2009, the first Tasers became available to police units.


Poland
Under Polish law, Tasers are not considered to be firearms. No permission is needed to buy and carry one.


UK
Tasers are considered to be 'prohibited weapons' under the Firearms Act and possession is banned without the written permission of the Home Secretary. The maximum sentence for possession is ten years in prison and an unlimited fine.

Taser guns are now used by British armed police as a "less than lethal" weapon. It was also announced in July 2007 that the deployment of Taser by specially trained police units who are not firearms officers, but who are facing similar threats of violence, would be trialled in ten police forces.

The 12 month trial commenced on 1 September 2007 and took place in the following forces: Avon & Somerset, Devon & Cornwall, Gwent, Lincolnshire, Merseyside, Metropolitan Police, Northamptonshire, Northumbria, North Wales and West Yorkshire.

Following the success of the trial, the Home Secretary agreed on 24 November 2008 to allow Chief Officers of all forces in England and Wales, from 1 December 2008, to extend Taser use to specially-trained units in accordance with current Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) policy and guidance, which states that Taser can be used only where officers would be facing violence or threats of violence of such severity that they would need to use force to protect the public, themselves, and/or the subject(s).

A fund for up to 10,000 additional Tasers is being made available for individual Chief Officers to bid for Tasers based on their own operational requirements.


U.S.
Taser devices are not considered firearms by the U.S. government. They can be legally carried (concealed or open) without a permit in 43 states. They are prohibited for citizen use in the District of Columbia, Hawaii, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin, as well as certain cities and counties. Their use in Connecticut and Illinois is legal with restrictions




Safety concerns
Main article: Taser safety issues
Taser International claims that Tasers are safe, but critics disagree, citing the number of deaths occurring after Taser use. Amnesty International has documented over 245 deaths that occurred after the use of Tasers. Amnesty International Canada and other civil liberties organizations have argued that a moratorium should be placed on Taser use until research can determine a way for them to be safely used.

A number of studies have investigated the potential dangers of Taser use. They have included examination of incident records, limited human testing, and experimental studies on pigs. Although tests on police and military volunteers have shown Tasers to function appropriately on a healthy, calm individual in a relaxed and controlled environment, Amnesty International says that they "do not take into account real life use of Tasers by law enforcement agencies, such as repeated or prolonged shocks and the use of restraints".

At least one police official has been tased to demonstrate confidence in the device's safety. Police officers in at least five US states have filed lawsuits against Taser International claiming they suffered serious injuries after being shocked with the device during training classes.

While their intended purpose is to circumvent the use of lethal force such as guns, the actual deployment of Tasers by police in the years since Tasers came into widespread use is claimed to have resulted in more than 180 deaths as of 2006.It is still unclear whether the Taser was directly responsible for the cause of death, but several legislators in the U.S. have filed bills clamping down on them and requesting more studies on their effects. Despite the growing controversy, a study funded by the U.S. Justice Department asserted that majority of people tasered from July 2005 to June 2007 suffered no injury. A study led by William Bozeman, of the Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, of nearly 1,000 persons subjected to Taser use, concluded that 99.7% of the subjects had either minor injuries, such as scrapes and bruises, or none at all, while three persons suffered injuries severe enough to need hospital admission, and two other subjects died. Their autopsy reports indicated neither death was related to the use of a Taser.

The use of the Taser has come under scrutiny in Canada following national media coverage of the 2007 Robert Dziekański Taser incident in which a Polish immigrant died after being tasered five times by a Royal Canadian Mounted Police officer at the Vancouver International Airport. As a result several official reviews of Taser safety are underway in Canada and two police forces have put large orders of the device on hold.


In October and November 2007, four individuals died after being tasered in Canada, leading to calls for review of its use. The highest-profile of these cases was that of Robert Dziekański, a non-English-speaking man from Poland who died in less than two minutes after being tasered by Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) at the Vancouver International Airport, October 14, 2007.Followed by three other post-Taser deaths, this incident led Amnesty International to demand an end to Taser use in Canada


On December 12, 2007, in response to the death of Robert Dziekański, Public Safety Minister Stockwell Day requested that the federal Commission for Public Complaints Against the RCMP (CPC) prepare recommendations for immediate implementation. The CPC report recommended to "immediately restrict the use of the conducted energy weapon (CEW)" by reclassifying it as an "impact weapon." The commission released its report on 18 June 2008; recommendations include restricting use to experienced officers (5 years or more), providing medical attention to those who have been zapped, improving previous documentation of specific deployment of the weapon, among other things.

In June 2008, a federal jury ordered Taser International to pay the family of Robert Heston, Jr., $6 million in punitive and compensatory damages for the 2005 death of the man a day after he was shocked repeatedly by officers using Tasers. According to a press report, the jury "said Taser had failed to warn police in Salinas, California, that prolonged exposure to electric shock from the device could cause a risk of cardiac arrest."

In December 2008, in light of extensive testing of Tasers by the CBC, many Canadian police agencies, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police have suspended use of either all Tasers or just those manufactured before 2006
Excited delirium




Taser and its supporters in the police community regularly attribute the cause of deaths that follow Tasering to "excited delirium", a term for a phenomenon in which agitated or disturbed individuals respond in an irrational, bizarre, and hyperactive manner when confronted or apprehended by police. Critics argue that as this alleged condition exists only in relation to being apprehended by police, its existence is dubious. Grame Norton, director of the public safety project of the Canadian Civil Liberties Association argues that "Anytime you see a specific condition being referenced in only one context, it raises serious question." Other critics assert that the term is used to mask police brutality. While the term "excited delirium" has been accepted by the National Association of Medical Examiners, in the United States it has been rejected by the American Medical Association while the Canadian Medical Association Journal dismisses it as a "pop culture phenomenon". The condition is not recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

Police psychologist Mike Webster testified at a British Columbia inquiry into Taser deaths that police have been "brainwashed" by Taser International to justify "ridiculously inappropriate" use of the electronic weapon. He called "excited delirium" a "dubious disorder" used by Taser International in its training of police.



Incidents
May 2006, USA. Otto Zehm
November 2006, USA. UCLA Taser incident
September 2007, USA. University of Florida Taser incident
October 2007, Canada. Robert Dziekański Taser incident
September 2008, USA. Iman Morales Taser incident
Use in schools and on children

Police officers that patrol schools, including grade schools, in several U.S. states (including Kansas, Minnesota, Kentucky, Virginia and Florida), currently carry Tasers. In 2004, the parents of a 6-year-old boy in Miami sued the police department for tasering their child. The police said the boy was threatening to injure his own leg with a shard of glass, and claimed that using the Taser was the only option to stop the boy from injuring himself. Taser International asserts that the Taser is safe for use on anyone weighing 60 pounds (27 kg) or more. Nevertheless, the boy's mother told CNN that the three officers involved might have found it easier to reason with her child. Two weeks later, a 12-year-old girl skipping school was tasered in Miami-Dade. In March 2008, an 11-year old girl was shocked by a Taser. In March 2009, a 15-year-old boy died in Michigan after being tasered.

Supporters of Taser use in schools argue that merely switching on the device, and threatening to use it, can be effective in frightening violent or uncooperative students into desisting from inappropriate behaviour, if verbal reprimands have not succeeded. Critics counter that Tasers may interact with preexisting medical complications such as medications, and may even contribute to someone's death as a result. Thus, critics say, they should either be prohibited altogether in schools, or classified as possibly lethal weapons and as a consequence, should be regulated very tightly. Critics also argue that using a Taser on a minor, and especially a young child, is effectively cruel and abusive punishment, and therefore it should be banned on the same grounds that other, older forms of physical punishment such as canings have been banned from use in many schools.

Tools of political suppression
Tasers and other electroshock weapons have been used at political protests such as those by the anti-globalization movement in the United States, France, Switzerland, Germany, and several other countries. Members of the movement, as well as world press are concerned that the technology, and other "less-lethal" weapons, are likely to become tools for suppressing legitimate protest associated with imposition of "neo-liberal economic policies".[67] Thomas Gebauer, of the German non-governmental organization Medico International, describes "non-lethal weapons" as a symbol of "the growing repressive character of European and North American governments" willing to suppress protests against the spreading social injustice. According to Gebauer, "the aim of these weapons is to guarantee social borders, to install perennial control of movements, to restrict democracy."


Torture
A report from a meeting of the United Nations Committee against Torture states that "The Committee was worried that the use of TaserX26 weapons, provoking extreme pain, constituted a form of torture, and that in certain cases it could also cause death, as shown by several reliable studies and by certain cases that had happened after practical use." Amnesty International has reported several alleged cases of excessive electroshock gun use, that possibly amount to torture, including the death of an individual after being struck 12 times with a Taser in Orange County, Florida. They have also raised extensive concerns about the use of other electro-shock devices by American police and in American prisons, as they can be (and according to Amnesty International, sometimes are) used to inflict cruel pain on individuals. For example, Eric Hammock of Texas died in April 2005 after receiving more than 20 Taser shocks by Fort Worth police officers. Maurice Cunningham of South Carolina, while an inmate at the Lancaster County Detention Center, was subjected to continuous shock for 2 minutes 49 seconds, which a medical examiner said caused cardiac arrhythmia and his subsequent death. He was 29 years old and had no alcohol or drugs in his system.

In response to the claims that the pain inflicted by the use of the Taser could potentially constitute torture, Tom Smith, the Chairman of the Taser Board, has stated that the U.N. is "out of touch" with the needs of modern policing.

"Pepper spray goes on for hours and hours, hitting someone with a baton breaks limbs, shooting someone with a firearm causes permanent damage, even punching and kicking - the intent of those tools is to inflict pain, ... with the Taser, the intent is not to inflict pain; it's to end the confrontation. When it's over, it's over."

- Taser Chairman Tom Smith
Tasers may also not leave the telltale markings that a conventional beating might. The American Civil Liberties Union has also raised concerns about their use.






اعلنت شركة تاسر المنتجة لمسدس الصعق الكهربائي المعروف باسمها الاثنين نسخة جديدة من مسدسها المثير للجدل ليصبح قادرا على الاطلاق على ثلاثة اهداف متتالية بدون الاضطرار لاعادة شحنه.
وقال ريك سميث المدير العام لتاسر انترناشيونال وهي شركة مقرها في اريزونا (جنوب غرب) في بيان ان تاسر اكس-3 "سيحسن الفعالية والسلامة قياسا الى الاجيال السابقة لتاسر".
واضاف "انه السلاح اليدوي الاكثر تطويرا في صنعه على الاطلاق" موضحا ان المسدس يمكن ان يسجل مزيدا من المعلومات من النموذج السابق تاسر اكس 26 الذي اطلق في 2003 واستخدم بشكل واسع من اجهزة الشرطة في الولايات المتحدة وفي اوروبا.
وتاسر اكس 26 الذي يرسل الى هدفه دفعتين بشحنة 50 الف فولت يجهز به منذ 2004 الجيش والشرطة الوطنية والدرك في فرنسا. ومنذ 2008 يمكن استخدامه ايضا من قبل الشرطيين البلديين.
وسجلت حالات وفاة عدة بعد اطلاق النار من مسدسات تاسر خصوصا في الولايات المتحدة وكندا.
وبحسب منظمة العفو الدولية فان 334 شخصا قتلوا في الولايات المتحدة بين 2001 واب/اغسطس 2008 بعد ان اصيبوا بصدمة كهربائية من تاسر. وهذا السلاح "تسبب او اسهم" في التسبب بالوفاة بصورة مباشرة في نحو خمسين حالة بحسب استنتاجات خبراء استندت اليهم المنظمة غير الحكومية

The company producing the Taser electric stun gun known as the name of Monday a new version of the controversial gun to be able to launch three consecutive goals without having to re-shipment.
Said Rick Smith, Director-General of Taser International, a company based in Arizona (south west) in a statement that the Taser X-3 "would improve the effectiveness and safety compared to the previous generations of the Taser."
"It is the most manual of arms in the development of manufacturing at all," adding that the gun can register more information than the previous model Taser X-26, launched in 2003 and used in a wide range of police services in the United States and Europe.
The Taser X-26, which aim to send the shipment of two 50 thousand volt processed by the Army since 2004 and the national police and gendarmerie in France. Since the 2008 can also be used by municipal police officers.
Recorded several cases of death after the shooting of Taser guns, especially in the United States and Canada.
According to Amnesty International, 334 people were killed in the United States between 2001 and August 2008 after he suffered an electric shock from the Taser. This weapon "caused or contributed" to cause death directly in the case of about fifty, according to the conclusions of experts based on their non-governmental organization

Sunday, July 26, 2009

windows 7 ....ويندوز 7


Microsoft is planning to ship its next major version of Windows--known internally as version "7"--within roughly three years, CNET News.com has learned.
The company discussed Windows 7 on Thursday at a conference for its field sales force in Orlando, Fla., according to sources close to the company.

While the company provided few details, Windows 7, the next client version of the operating system, will be among the steps taken by Microsoft to establish a more predictable release schedule, according to sources. The company plans a more "iterative" process of information disclosure to business customers and partners, sources said.

Windows Vista, the oft-delayed most recent release of Windows, shipped to businesses in November and to consumers in January after more than five years of development. Vista's gestation period was marked by shifting product details as internal priorities changed and problems arose with development.

Like Vista, Windows 7 will ship in consumer and business versions, and in 32-bit and 64-bit versions. The company also confirmed that it is considering a subscription model to complement Windows, but did not provide specifics or a time frame.

Next up on Microsoft's agenda is Service Pack 1 for Windows Vista, which is expected before year's end.

The discussion of Windows' future isn't surprising, given that Microsoft has been criticized by business customers for delays related to Vista. Many business customers pay for Microsoft's software under a license agreement called Software Assurance.

Windows 7 was previously known by the code name Vienna. A Microsoft representative confirmed that Windows 7 is the internal code name for the next client release of Windows. The details were released "as part of our ongoing outreach to enterprise customers and partners, Microsoft has begun sharing plans for how they will continue to deliver value to businesses in the future?Software Assurance customers in particular," a representative said in a statement via e-mail.

"Microsoft is scoping Windows 7 development to a three-year time frame, and then the specific release date will ultimately be determined by meeting the quality bar," according to the representative.



      ويندوز 7 يعالج أخطاء فيستا




قال علي الفرماوي نائب رئيس شركة مايكروسوفت العالميةإن نظام التشغيل "ويندز 7" الجديد يعالج جميع الملاحظات التي أبداها مستخدمون حول نظام "فيستا"، ويمكن تشغيله على أجهزة الـ "نت بوك" بنفس كفاءة تشغيله الكمبيوتر المكتبي والمحمول.
وتوقع الفرماوي في تصريحات صحفية على هامش مؤتمر صحفي عقدته مايكروسوفت الخليج على هامش معرض جيتكس دبى للتقنية 2009 ارتفاع مبيعات الكمبيوتر بنسبة 5% بعد إطلاق نظام التشغيل الجديد "ويندوز 7".
وقال إن نظام التشغيل "ويندوز فيستا" ركز على دعم عناصر أمن المعلومات وحماية الشبكات، وهو ما أحدث نوعا من التعقيد على استخدام النظام كما تسبب في عدم توافق بعض البرمجيات معه.
وأضاف أن نظام "ويندوز 7" تجاوز هذه الملاحظات، بحيث أصبح يؤمن قدرا عاليا مع الأمان مع تبسيط طريقة الاستخدام.
وأضاف أن مايكروسوفت لم تبالغ في طرق تأمين النظام ضد محاولات القرصنة انطلاقا من التزامها بتوفير قدر هائل من سهولة التركيب لمستخدمى منتجها الذين حصلوا على النظام بطريقة قانونية، مشيرا إلى أن مكافحة القرصنة لابد أن تنطلق من زيادة الوعي لدى الحكومات وجمهور المستخدمين.
واستبعد تأثير الأزمة المالية العالمية على فرص انتشار نظام ويندوز 7، مشيرا إلى أن التجارب العملية أثبتت أن النظام الجديد يحقق وفرا بين 30 و 50
دولاراسنويا من إجمالي التكلفة التشغيلية لكل كمبيوتر بسبب فعاليتة في استهلاك الكهرباء ومتطلبات الصيانة وغيرهما.
وأوضح أن الأزمة المالية العالمية لم تؤثر على إنفاق الأفراد على التكنولوجيا كما أثرت على إنفاق الشركات ، مشيرا إلى أن شريحة كبيرة من الشركات مازالت تنظر إلى التكنولوجيا كأحد أهم حلول التعافي وترشيد النفقات.
وقال ان الشركة تخصص نحو 9.7 مليارات دولار سنويا لأبحاث التطوير لتحسين كفاءة استخدام البرمجيات لتلبي

الاحتياجات المختلفة للمستخدمين سواء على صعيد قطاع الأعمال والتعليم والترفية وغيرهم.
في محاولة ناجحة لتصحيح أخطاء فيستا قامت مايكروسوفت تطرح نظام تشغيل ويندوز 7 ا لأكثر سهولة وأماناً من فيستا

كشفت مايكروسوفت خلال المؤتمر الذي أقيم بالولايات المتحدة الأميركية في ولاية كاليفورنيا بمدينة لاس فيغاس والمختص بمطوري البرمجيات المحترفين عن نظام التشغيل الجديد الذي سوف تطرحة مايكروسوفت خلفا لنظام التشغيل ويندوز فيستا والذي أطلقت عليه خلال الفترة البرمجية windows 7.

وقد روعي في تطوير النظام التشغيلي الجديد عدد من الأمور التي تضفي طابع الإحترافية عوضا عن طابع الشكل الذي كان يمتاز به نظام التشغيل الحالي ويندوز فيستا.

كما قامت مايكروسوفت بتغير طريقة الربط على الشبكة اللاسلكية حيث كان المستخدم يعاني من صعوبه للوصول إلى الشبكة اللاسلكية بعد عدد من الضغطات باستخدام نظام التشغيل ويندوز فيستا.

كما قامت مايكروسوفت بدمج برنامج تصفح الإنترنت الجديد ويندوز اكسبلورر 8مع هذا النظام التشغيلي الجديد الذي يحتوي على عدد من التطويرات الجديدة على طريقة تصفح الإنترنت، وأيضاً تم تطوير نظام البحث في جهاز الكمبيوتر سواء كان في محتويات المجلدات أو على سطح المكتب حيث تتم فلترة وفهرسة كل ما يحتويه الجهاز من ما يوفر نتائج بحث غايه في السرعة وأداء أفضل.

أيضا قامت مايكروسوفت بتطوير نظام التشفير في النظام ليكون أفضل من سابقه ويندوز فيستا حيث يوفر درجة عالية من التشفير الرقمي. كما راعت مايكروسوفت أن تكون البرمجيات السابقة أكثر توافقا معه، حيث بالإمكان تشغيل البرمجيات الخاصة بويندوز اكس بي على النظام الجديد.

كما قامت مايكروسوفت بتطوير كل من برنامجي مايكروسوفت وردباد برنامج الرسم بينت. وحل أحد مشكلة استهلاك الطاقة في ويندوز فيستا، حيث هذه النسخة الجديدة ذات استهلاك قليل للطاقة.

وقد خففت مايكروسوفت من تدخل نظام الحماية في كل حركات وسكنات النظام كما كان الحال في ويندوز فيستا. فمن خلال نظام التشغيل ويندوز فيستا في كل مرة تريد تركيب أو تنصيب برنامج أو الدخول إلى برامج النظام الأساسية تظهر لك شاشة السماح التي من خلالها تقوم بالسماح لهذا الأمر بالاستكمال أو التوقف عنه مما سبب الكثير من الإنزعاج لدى مستخدمي نظام ويندوز فيستا.

وقد اخذت مايكروسوفت هذه الشكوى من قبل المستخدمين بعين الاعتبار وأنتجت نظام تشغيلي اقل تدخلا في عمل النظام واكثر حماية.وقد قامت مايكروسوفت أيضاً بنقل إنشاء الشبكات من أيدي المحترفين إلى أيدي المبتدئين وذلك من خلال تقديم طريقة جديد لإنشاء شبكة منزلية اطلقت عليها مجموعة الشبكة المنزلية أو Home Group Network، حيث قامت مايكروسوفت بتسهيل عملية إنشاء شبكة محلية منزلية بتوفير عدد من الأدوات المستخدمة في إنشاء شبكات داخلية كما قامت بإضافة معالج إنشاء شبكة منزلية سهل جدا تقوم فقط بإنشاء الشبكة على جهاز واحد وتربط باقي الأجهزة عن طريق مفتاح تشفير يتيح للجهاز المطلوب الدخول إلى الشبكة للاستفادة من جميع مصادرها.

وقد قامت مايكروسوفت بإضافه خدمة جديدة أطلق عليها اسم
Directaccess
تتيح لمستخدم النظام الدخول على الخادم الرئيسي والذي يعمل عليه نظام التشغيل الخاص بالخوادم ******s Server 2008 R1 حيث بالإمكان استخدام الموارد ومصادر الشبكة من اي مكان ويمكنك من الدخول على الخادم الرئيسي وفتح ونقل الملفات كما يمكنك من الربط المباشر عن طريق الجيل الجديد من عناوين الأي بي IPV6، حيث يقوم بتوفير شهادات مشفره توفر لك إمكانية الإتصال بالخادم وتجاوز أنظمة الحماية مثل الجدران النارية من ما يوفر لك سهولة تامة تغنيك عن استخدام شبكة VPN المستخدمة حاليا للربط بين الخادم والأجهزة الفرعية.

طرحت مايكروسوفت النسخة التجريبية الأولى لنظام التشغيل ويندوز 7الجديد للعامة وذلك في اواخر شهر يناير من العام 2009م.

ويندوز 7 (سابقاً كان بالاسم الكودي بلاكوم
Blackomb
، ثم الاسم الكودي ڤيينا
Vienna)
هو الاسم الدارج للإصدار الكبير القادم لنظام التشغيل ويندوز الذي ستصدره شركة مايكروسوفت، وسيصدر بعد نظام ويندوز فيستا المعروف سابقًا بالاسم الكودي ويندوز لونغهورن. تم الإعلان عنه في شباط/فبراير 2000 و لكنه تأجل لعدة مرات منذ ذلك الحين
اللمس
وسيساعد نظام ويندوز 7 الذي لن يتم إطلاقه إلا في منتصف 2009 مستخدمي الكمبيوتر الشخصي على العمل عليه من خلال اللمس وليس الإشارة والنقر باستخدام الفأرة ما يشير إلى أن شركة البرمجيات العالمية تعتقد أن عهد استخدام الفأرة ولوحة المفاتيح قد قارب على نهايته، وسيظهر ذلك في مؤتمر سيعقد بين 26، و29 أكتوبر، 2008 وكذلك مؤتمر هندسة الهاردوير الخاص بالويندوز والذي يعقد بين 5 إلى 7 نوفمبر.[2]

وتأتي هذه الخطوة تأكيداً على ما أعلنه بيل جيتس حين أشار إلى أن علاقة الإنسان بالكمبيوتر ستتغير بشكل جذري في السنوات الخمس القادمة.

ولقد صدر بالفعل عدة نسخ تجريبية (Beta) منه آخرها يحمل رقم 7000 , وبحلول عام 2010 أو في اواخر العام 2009 سيتم إطلاق النظام الجديد الذي سيتحقق ما توقعه بيل جيتس رئيس شركة مايكروسوفت السابق حينما قال في واحد من أحاديثه الصحفية أن استخدام لوحة المفاتيح والماوس في طريقه إلى الإختفاء مع ظهور أدوات أكثر طبيعية وعفوية تعتمد على الحواس خاصة حواس اللمس والرؤية والنطق. وبعد الفكرة التي طبّقتها شركة 000 التشغيل الذي يعمل بشاشة اللمس أعلنت مايكروسوفت وضع نهاية لاستخدام الفأرة (الماوس) وذلك بظهور أحدث نظام تشغيل للكمبيوتر والذي يعتمد على فكرة ونجاح نظام التشغيل المنافس لأبل والذي يعمل بشاشة اللمس.

توقع جيتس أنه خلال خمس سنوات سيكون بإمكان المستخدمين مشاهدة صورهم والاستماع إلى موسيقاهم المفضلة باستخدام جهاز كهذا يعمل بواسطة اللمس وعرض جيتس جهاز كمبيوتر يشبه الطاولة الكبيرة المسطحة عليه مساحات يمكن لمسها لإعطاء أوامر وتعليمات للكمبيوتر. وكان جيتس قد تكهن بذلك منذ سنوات ولهذا طور أجهزة مثل جهاز الكمبيوتر المحمول الذي يستخدم قلماً رقمياً أو يعمل باللمس (تابلت) إلا أن هذا الجهاز لم يلق إقبالا كبيرا
التوافق مع المنتجات السابقة
صرحت مايكروسوفت أن إصدار العميل لـ"فيينا" سيصبح متاحًا لنظامي 32-بت و 64-بت على السواء وذلك لتسهيل عملية الانتقال الصناعي من حوسبة 32-بت إلى 64-بت. ومن المتوقع أن يدعم خادم "فيينا" أنظمة 64-بت فقط. وسيتواجد التوافق مع تطبيقات 32-بت السابقة، و لكن من غير المحتمل وجود دعم لتطبيقات نظام التشغيل من القرص (DOS) أو ويندوز 16-بت، حيث أن "ويندوز إكس بي المحترفين الإصدار x64" قد أسقط دعم هذه التطبيقات.

و قد جاء ذلك التصريح المذكور سلفـًا قبل اتخاذ قرار تأخير إنتاج فيينا وإطلاق مايكروسوفت ويندوز فيستا كمنتج وسيط.



اعلنت شركة مايكروسوفت، عملاق صناعة البرمجيات في العالم ان نظام التشغيل الجديد ويندوز 7 والذي ستطرحه الشركة في الاسواق في 22 اكتوبر المقبل اصبح متوافرا لمصنعي اجهزة الكمبيوتر في العالم
وتهدف هذه الخطوة الى اعطاء المصنعين الوقت الكافي لوضع نظام التشغيل ويندوز الجديد على اجهزة الكمبيوتر والاجهزة الذكية المختلفة التي ينتجونها عندما تطرح مايكروسوفت منتجها ويندوز 7 الجديد بشكل رسمي للعامة بعد شهرين من الان.
واعلنت الشركة انها انجزت كافة مهام الفحص اللازمة مشيرة الى ان هذه الخطوة مهمة لمايكروسوفت كما انها مهمة لشركائها
وتقول الشركة انها قامت بتعديل مزايا ووظائف النظام الجديد لتتماشى مع حاجات ورغبات عملائها، وان نظام التشغيل الجديد يعمل بشكل افضل على تشكيلة من الاجهزة الكمبيوترية واجهزة العاب الكمبيوتر
وستتيح مايكروسوفت نظام التشغيل الجديد لمصنعي اجهزة الكمبيوتر خلال الايام القليلة المقبلة
وكانت الشركة قد كشفت في يونيو/تموز الماضي الاسعار التي حددتها لمنتجها الجديد وستمنح مشتري اجهزة الكمبيوتر قبل موعد الطرح الرسمي لاطلاق نظام التشغيل ويندوز 7 فرصة لترقية نظام التشغيل القديم مثل ويندوز فيستا مثلا الى النظام الجديد مجانا.
وكانت شركة جوجل قد اعلنت قبل اسابيع نيتها طرح نظام تشغيل خاص بها يحمل اسم كروم او اس في النصف الثاني من 2010 والذي ينظر مراقبون له على انه تحد لنظام التشغيل التي اشتهرت به مايكروسوفت والذي يسيطر على 90 في المائة من اجمالي سوق الحاسبات الشخصية.

Tuesday, July 21, 2009

وشك منور زي البدر حقيقة علمية

كاميرات تلتقط صورا لخلايا تشع في الظلام





قالت صحيفة "الغارديان" البريطانية إن كاميرات فائقة الحساسية، تمكنت مؤخرا من التقاط صور لاشعاعات تصدر بكميات ضئيلة جدا من خلايا الجسم، لا يمكن ملاحظتها بالعين المجردة.
وأفادت الصحيفة بأن علماء يابانيين تمكنوا من التقاط صور "متلألئة" لأجساد البشر. وعلي الرغم من معرفة العلماء أن أجسام الكائنات الحية تنتج كميات ضئيلة من الضوء، كنتيجة للتفاعلات الكيميائية بين الخلايا، فإن هذه هي المرة الأولي التي تلتقط فيها صور لهذه الحالة علي كاميرات.
ونقلت الصحيفة وصف الباحثين لكيفية تصوير أجسام المتطوعين باستخدام الكاميرات فائقة الحساسية علي مدار عدة أيام، حيث أظهرت نتائجهم أن كمية الضوء المنبعثة تصل إلي أقصاها في آخر النهار وأدناها في آخر الليل، وأن أكثر المناطق إضاءة في جسم الإنسان هي منطقة الوجنات ومقدمة الرأس والرقبة


Humans glow in the dark
Ultra-sensitive cameras reveal that our bodies emit tiny amounts of light that are too weak for the human eye to detect

Amazing pictures of "glittering" human bodies have been released by Japanese scientists who have captured the first ever images of human "bioluminescence".

Although it has been known for many years that all living creatures produce a small amount of light as a result of chemical reactions within their cells, this is the first time light produced by humans has been captured on camera.

Writing in the online journal PLoS ONE, the researchers describe how they imaged volunteers' upper bodies using ultra-sensitive cameras over a period of several days. Their results show that the amount of light emitted follows a 24-hour cycle, at its highest in late afternoon and lowest late at night, and that the brightest light is emitted from the cheeks, forehead and neck.

Strangely, the areas that produced the brightest light did not correspond with the brightest areas on thermal images of the volunteers' bodies.

The light is a thousand times weaker than the human eye can perceive. At such a low level, it is unlikely to serve any evolutionary purpose in humans – though when emitted more strongly by animals such as fireflies, glow-worms and deep-sea fish, it can be used to attract mates and for illumination.

Bioluminescence is a side-effect of metabolic reactions within all creatures, the result of highly reactive free radicals produced through cell respiration interacting with free-floating lipids and proteins. The "excited" molecules that result can react with chemicals called fluorophores to emit photons.

Human bioluminescence has been suspected for years, but until now the cameras required to detect such dim light sources took over an hour to capture a single image and so were unable to measure the constantly fluctuating light from living creatures.

While the practical applications of the discovery are hard to imagine, one can't help wondering what further surprises the human body has in store for us




Cameras capture images of cells radiate in the dark



The newspaper "The Guardian" that the British super-sensitive cameras, has recently been able to take pictures of radiation make very small quantities of cells of the body, can not observe the naked eye.
The paper reported that Japanese scientists were able to take pictures of "glittering" of the bodies of humans. In spite of the scientists know that the objects of organisms produce small quantities of light, as a result of the chemical interactions between the cells, this is the first time by taking pictures of this situation on the cameras.
The newspaper quoted the researchers described how the use of imaging objects volunteers cameras high sensitivity over several days, where their findings showed that the amount of light emitted up to a maximum at the end of the day and lowest at the end of the night, lighting, and more areas in the human body is the Aluzhnat Introduction to the head and neck.

Saturday, July 18, 2009

GOOGLE OPERATING SYSTEM


تعمل شركة غوغل الاميركية على تطوير نظام تشغيل جديد لاجهزة الكمبيوتر الشخصية في منافسة مباشرة لشركة مايكروسوفت، الرائدة في سوق انظمة التشغيل في العالم.
ويستهدف النظام الذي يحمل اسم كروم اجهزة الكمبيوتر الدفترية الصغيرة والمنخفضة التكلفة كما يمكن استخدامه على بقية اجهزة الكمبيوتر الشخصية الاخرى.
وتقول شركة جوجل ان اجهزة الكمبيوتر الدفترية المزودة بنظام تشغيلها الجديد ستكون متوافرة في السوق في النصف الثاني من العام 2010.
واشارت الشركة على مدونتها الرسمية على شبكة الانترنت الى ان نظام التشغيل الجديد سيتميز بـ" السرعة والبساطة والامن".
وتقول غوغل ان نظام التشغيل الجديد الذي سيعمل وفقا لاسلوب المصدر المفتوح هو امتداد طبيعي لمتصح شبكة الانترنت كروم والذي اطلقته شركة غوغل قبل تسعة اشهر وتقول انه استقطب 30 مليون مستخدم حتى الان.
وبالنسبة لشركة مايكروسوفت، فان الانباء عن قرب طرح نظام التشغيل الخاص بغوغل ياتي قبل اشهر قليلة من اطلاق عملاق البرمجيات احدث نسخة من نظام التشغيل الخاص بها وهو ويندوز 7.
ومن جانبها تقول مديرة شركة غوغل للشؤون الهندسية لينوس اوبسون ان الشركة "تصمم نظام التشغيل الجديد ليكون سريعا وخفيفا بحيث يتمكن المستخدم من بدء التشغيل والدخول على الانترنت خلال ثوان".
وتشير الشركة الى ان انظمة التشغيل الحالية صممت خلال الفترة التي سبقت انتشار الانترنت، وان نظام التشغيل الجديد يعيد النظر في الكيفية التي يجب ان تكون عليها انظمة التشغيل.
وتقول جوجل، عملاق محركات البحث على شبكة الانترنت، ان نظام التشغيل الجديد سيعود للاساسيات.
وتشير الشركة الى انها تعيد بشكل كامل تصميم بنية الامن على نظام التشغيل بحيث لن يكون على المستخدمين العاديين التعامل مع الفيروسات والتحديث الخاص بالخواص الامنية.
وتضيف الشركة ان مهمة نظام التشغيل الجديد هي ان يعمل ليؤدي وظيفته. ,ويتوقع ان يؤدي اعلان غوغل الى اعادة تشكيل سوق انظمة التشغيل بشكل جذري خصوصا في ظل سيطرة شركة مايكروسوفت على حصة 90 في المائة من السوق العالمية لانظمة التشغيل.
ووصف مدير مجموعة اندرلي المتخصصة في دراسة السوق روب اندرلي هذا الاعلان بالضخم قائلا ان هذه هي المرة الاولى التي نرى فيها منافسة حقيقية في سوق انظمة التشغيل منذ سنوات فهي المرة الاولى التي تحاول شركة رئيسية تحدي مايكروسوفت.
وقال اندرلي في حديث لماجي شيلس، مراسلة بي بي سي لشؤون تقنية المعلومات ان كروم هو نظام التشغيل الاول الذي يعتمد على سلسلة من المنتجات المرتبطة بشبكة الانترنت، فهو نظام التشغيل الاول الذي صمم لحقبة الانترنت.
وكانت شركة غوغل قد اطلقت العام الماضي متصفح الانترنت كروم والذي قالت انه صمم للاشخاص الذين يعيشون على الانترنت، يبحثون فيها عن المعلومات، ويبقون على اتصال مع بريدهم الالكتروني، والاخبار ويتسوقون ويتواصلون مع اصدقائهم

Google OS Live is an operating system developed by google..
This is live version just burn iso file and boot the disc and enjoy the Os give it a try
Google is working on the development of new operating system for personal computers in direct competition to Microsoft, market leader in operating systems in the world.
The system is designed to vineyards, which carries the name of small notebook computers and low-cost and can be used on the rest of other personal computers.
Google says that notebook PCs with the new operating system will be available in the market in the second half of the year 2010.
The company's official code on the Internet that the new operating system will be characterized as "speed, simplicity and security."
Google says that the new operating system, which will work according to a technique of open source is a natural extension of Mtsah Chrome and Internet company Google, which launched nine months ago and says it has attracted 30 million users so far.
For Microsoft, the news closely on the Google operating system comes a few months before the software giant launched the latest version of its own operating system and is Windows 7.
For its part, says Google's director of engineering for Linus Aobson that the company "the new operating system designed to be fast and light so as to enable the user to start-up and Internet access within seconds."
According to the company that current operating systems were designed during the period that preceded the spread of the Internet, and that the new operating system re-examine how it should be the operating systems.
Google says, is a giant search engines on the Internet, the new operating system will return to the basics.
According to the company that it is re-designing the entire security structure of the operating system so that users will not be dealing with the ordinary virus and update on the security properties.
The company adds that the task of the new operating system that works for doing his job. And is expected to lead to the Google announcement of the restructuring of the operating systems market dramatically, especially in light of Microsoft's control of the share of 90 per cent of the world market for operating systems.
The Director of the Group specialized in the study of Vanderley market Vanderley Rob Baldkhm announcement, saying that this is the first time we see them as real competition in the operating systems market for many years it is the first time that Microsoft is a major challenge.
Vanderley said in an interview with Maggie Cils, the BBC's information technology for chromium that is the first operating system, which relies on a series of Internet-related products, it is the first operating system designed for the era of the Internet.
The company Google has launched a website last year's Chrome browser, which she said was designed for people who live on the Internet, looking at the information, and stay in touch with email, shopping, news, and communicate with friends

Sunday, July 12, 2009

The Most Amazing Images and Real Ghost pictures....صور مدهشة و صور اشباح حقيقية


The Most Amazing Images and Real Ghost picturesصور مدهشة و صور اشباح حقيقية
.صورة جني في محطة القطار.صورة شبح عفريت امراة بيضاء

ماهو الشبح؟
يعتقد بان الاشباح مجرد حظور الارواح الموتى بشكل مرئي للاحياءواستنادا على ماقاله اولئك الذين ادعوا انهم قد راوا اشباحا فانها تبدو شاحبة غير واضحه يمكن ان تعبر الاشياء الصلبه مثل الابواب والجدران وتتخللها وهي تظهر وتختفي من دون ان تترك اي اثر ولا تزال مساله اي وجود حقيقي للاشباح غامضه تماما
انواع الاشباح
الاشباح المعاوده
تشاهد اشباح المعاوده في اوقات مختلفه ومن قبل اناس مختلفين ومع ذلك فالشبح نفسه يظهر في المكان نفسه ويبدو انه لا يابه بالاحياء ولكن المكان الذي يرتاده هو الذي يجذبه فقط ويمكن ان تتمثل الاشباح في هيئه الانسان او الحيوان
الاشباح الادميه الحيه
من الغرابه بمكان ان كثير من الاشباح التي يحكى عنها هي من هذا النوع اذ يرى شاهد عيان فجاه احد اقربائه او اصدقائه ممن سيموت عما قريب اوفي محنه عظيمه ومع هذا ربما يكون الشخص الذي يظهر شبحه في مكان اخر بعيد وتظهر مثل هذه الاشباح عاده مره واحده
الاشباح الهادفه
وربما تظهر الاشباح لسبب خاص وهي صور للموتى الذين يظهرون لاعطاء رساله انذار للاحياء من افراد الاسره او الاصدقاء المقربين وقلما تتكلم الاشباح ولكنهم يشيرون باصابعهم او يقومون باشارت لتسليم رسالاتهم
الاشباح الصاخبه
هي المسؤوله عن تنفيذ بعض جوانب القوه الخارقه المخيفه كتحريك الاشياء في الهواء ويعتقد كثير من الناس ان الاشباح الصاخبه عباره عن ارواح شريره وانها لا تتصرف كما الاشباح العاديون
تعرف على شكل الشبح
ليس هناك جواب على السؤال القائل : ماهي اوصاف الشبح ؟والسبب في ذلك ان الاشباح تتباين كثيرا في اشكالها فمنها ما ياخذ اشكالا شفافه ومنها ما ياخذ اشكالا ظليله قاتمه واخرى تبدو حيه تماما ولكن تم ضبط بعض الصفات العامه عبر السنين طويله للاشباح والتي يمكن ان تساعدك في تمييز عن بقيه الاشياءالاخرى :-
- يرتدي الشبح غالبا لباسا غريبا او زيا قديم
-الاشباح عاده لا تتكلم ابدا حتى ولو تحدثت اليها
- يمكن ان يختفي الشبح في الهواء الرقيق وان يخترق عبر الجدار في الهواء
- ربما يتحول الشبح فجاه الى ماده في غرفه موصده مشكلا بذلك مظهرا مستحيلا
تجمعات الاشباح
من المعتقد ان الاشباح تتردد الى مسرح الموت ولا عجب اذا من ان كثيرامن الاشباح تتواجد في الاماكن حدث فيها حادث موت او عنف على نطاق واسع ذات مره ولعلك ممن يعتقدون ان عدد الاشباح الذين يترددون الى مسرح الاضطرابات هو نفسه عددالذين ماتوا فيه ولكن ليست هذه الحال دائما اذ يبدو لسبب مجهول ان بعض الضحايا المعينين هم الذين اصبحوا اشباحا وبالطبع فليس بمقدور كل انسان رؤيه الاشباح اذ يمتاز الذين يستطيعون رؤيتهم بقدرات نفسيه كبيرة
التفسيرات العلميه
ثبت ان كثير من القصص الاشباح غير صحيح بعد التحري الباحثون الفيزيائيون فيها وغالبا ما وجدوا ان الاشارات التي اعتقدها الناس انها اشباح لها تفسيرات علميه طبيعيه لذلك فليس صعبا ان نفهم سبب ايمان الغابرين بوجود الاشباح الاوهو افتقارهم الي معرفه الكافيه لكيفيه حصول الاحداث الطبيعيه ويجد الباحثون اليوم ان الناس يشعرون بخيبه امل فضلا عن السعاده عندما يخبرون ان الاشباح كان عباره عن صوت ريح او جريان ماء وهذا يعني ان الناس يفضلون الاعتقاد بوجود الاشباح


Ghost
A ghost has been defined as the disembodied spirit or soul of a deceased person, although in popular usage the term refers only to the apparition of such a person. Often described as insubstantial and partly transparent, ghosts are reported to haunt particular locations or people that they were associated with in life or at time of death.

Phantom armies, ghost-animals, ghost trains and phantom ships have also been reported.

Ghosts or similar paranormal entities appear in film, theatre, and literature; legends and myths, and some religions.


Etymology and Synonyms

The English word ghost continues Old English gást, hypothetical Common Germanic *gaisto-z. It is common to West Germanic, but lacking in North and East Germanic (the equivalent word in Gothic is ahma, Old Norse has andi m., önd f.). The pre-Germanic form would have been *ghoizdo-z, apparently from a root denoting "fury, anger", cognate to Sanskrit hedas "anger", reflected in Old Norse geisa "to rage". The Germanic word is recorded as masculine only, but likely continues a neuter s-stem. The original meaning of the Germanic word would thus have been an animating principle of the mind, in particular capable of excitation and fury (compare óðr). In Germanic paganism, "Germanic Mercury", and the later Odin, was at the same time the conductor of the dead and the "lord of fury" leading the Wild Hunt.

Besides denoting the human spirit or soul, both of the living and the deceased, the Old English word is used as a synonym of Latin spiritus also in the meaning of "breath, blast" from the earliest (9th century) attestations. It could also denote any good or evil spirit, i.e. angels and demons; the Anglo-Saxon gospel refers to the demonic possession of Matthew 12:43 as se unclæna gast. Also from the Old English period, the word could denote the spirit of God, viz. the "Holy Ghost". The now prevailing sense of "the soul of a deceased person, spoken of as appearing in a visible form" emerges in Middle English (14th century) only.

The synonym spook is a Dutch loanword, akin to Low German spôk (of uncertain etymology); it entered the English language via the United States in the 19th century.

Alternate words in modern usage include spectre (from Latin spectrum), the Scottish wraith (of obscure origin), phantom (via French ultimately from Greek phantasma, compare fantasy) and apparition. The term shade in classical mythology translates Greek σκιά, or Latin umbra, in reference to the notion of spirits in the Greek underworld.

A revenant is a deceased person returning from the dead to haunt the living, either as a disembodied ghost or alternatively as an animated ("undead") corpse.

The term poltergeist is a German word, literally a "noisy ghost", for a spirit said to manifest itself by invisibly moving and influencing objects.

Also related is the concept of a fetch, the visible ghost or spirit of a person yet alive, a notion widespread cultures. The word "ghost" may also refer to any spirit or demon.


Typology

Anthropological context
Further information: Animism, Ancestor worship, Origin of religion, and Anthropology of religion
A notion of the transcendent, supernatural or numinous, usually involving entities like ghosts, demons or deities, is a cultural universal shared by all human cultures. In pre-literate folk religions, these beliefs are often summarized under animism and ancestor worship.

In many cultures malignant, restless ghosts are distinguished from the more benign spirits which are the subject of ancestor worship.

Ancestor worship typically involves rites intended to prevent revenants, vengeful spirits of the dead, imagined as starving and envious of the living. Strategies for preventing revenants may either include sacrifice, i.e. the provision of the dead with food and drink in order to pacify them, or the magical banishment of the deceased, preventing them from returning by force. Ritual feeding of the dead is performed in traditions like the Chinese Ghost Festival or the Western All Souls' Day. Magical banishment of the dead is present in many of the world's burial customs. The bodies found in many tumuli (kurgan) had been ritually bound before burial, and the custom of binding the dead persists, for example, in rural Anatolia.

Nineteenth-century anthropologist James Frazer stated in his classic work, The Golden Bough, that souls were seen as the creature within that animated the body

Ghosts and the afterlife
Although the human soul was sometimes symbolically or literally depicted in ancient cultures as a bird or other animal, it was widely held that the soul was an exact reproduction of the body in every feature, even down to clothing the person wore. This is depicted in artwork from various ancient cultures, including such works as the Egyptian Book of the Dead, which shows deceased people in the afterlife appearing much as they did before death, including the style of dress.


Common attributes
Another widespread belief concerning ghosts is that they were composed of a misty, airy, or subtle material. Anthropologists speculate that this may also stem from early beliefs that ghosts were the person within the person, most noticeable in ancient cultures as a person's breath, which upon exhaling in colder climates appears visibly as a white mist. This belief may have also fostered the metaphorical meaning of "breath" in certain languages, such as the Latin spiritus and the Greek pneuma, which by analogy became extended to mean the soul. In the Bible, God is depicted as animating Adam with a breath.

In many traditional accounts, ghosts were often thought to be deceased people looking for vengeance, or imprisoned on earth for bad things they did during life. The appearance of a ghost has often been regarded as an omen or portent of death. Seeing one's own ghostly double or "fetch" is a related omen of death.

White ladies were reported to appear in many rural areas, and supposed to have died tragically or suffered trauma in life. White Lady legends are found around the world. Common to many of them is the theme of losing or being betrayed by a husband or fiancé. They are often associated with an individual family line, as a harbinger of death. When one of these ghosts is seen it indicates that someone in the family is going to die, similar to a banshee.

Legends of ghost ships have existed since the 18th century; most notable of these is the Flying Dutchman. This theme has been used in literature in The Rime of the Ancient Mariner by Coleridge.

Locale

Amityville House is portrayed as a haunted house in the filmSee also: Haunted house
A place where ghosts are reported is described as haunted, and often seen as being inhabited by spirits of deceased who may have been former residents or were familiar with the property. Supernatural activity inside homes is said to be mainly associated with violent or tragic events in the building's past such as murder, accidental death, or suicide — sometimes in the recent or ancient past. Amongst many cultures and religions it is believed that the essence of a being such as the 'soul' continues to exist. Some philosophical and religious views argue that the 'spirits' of those who have died have not 'passed over' and are trapped inside the property where their memories and energy are strong.

History

Antiquity

King Hsuan (827-783 BC) according to Chinese legend executed his minister, Tu Po, on false charges even after being warned that Tu Po's ghost would seek revenge. Three years later, according to historical chronicles, Tu Po's ghost shot and killed Hsuan with a bow and arrow before an assembly of feudal lords. The Chinese philosopher, Mo Tzu (470-391 BC), is quoted as having commented:

"If from antiquity to the present, and since the beginning of man, there are men who have seen the bodies of ghosts and spirits and heard their voices, how can we say that they do not exist? If none have heard them and none have seen them, then how can we say they do? But those who deny the existence of the spirits say: "Many in the world have heard and seen something of ghosts and spirits. Since they vary in testimony, who are to be accepted as really having heard and seen them?" Mo Tzu said: As we are to rely on what many have jointly seen and what many have jointly heard, the case of Tu Po is to be accepted.

The Hebrew Torah and the Bible contain few references to ghosts, associating spiritism with forbidden occult activities cf. Deuteronomy 18:11. The most notable reference is in the First Book of Samuel (I Samuel 28:7-19 KJV), in which a disguised King Saul has the Witch of Endor summon the spirit of Samuel. In the New Testament, Jesus has to persuade the Disciples that he is not a ghost following the resurrection, Luke 24:37-39 (note that some versions of the Bible, such as the KJV and NKJV, use the term "spirit"). In a similar vein, Jesus' followers at first believe him to be a ghost (spirit) when they see him walking on water.

A celebrated account of a haunted house from the ancient classical world is given by Pliny the Younger (c. (50 AD) Pliny describes, in a letter to a friend, how Athenodoros Cananites (c. 74 BC – 7 AD), a Stoic philosopher, decided to rent a large house in Athens, to investigate widespread rumors that it was haunted. Athenodoros staked out at the house that night, and, sure enough, a disheveled, aged spectre, bound at feet and hands with rattling chains, eventually appeared. The spirit then beckoned for Athenodoros to follow him; Athenodoros complied, but the ghost soon vanished. The philosopher marked the spot where the old man had disappeared, and, on the next day, advised the magistrates to dig there. The man's shackled bones were reportedly uncovered three years later. After a proper burial, the hauntings ceased.

One of the first persons to express disbelief in ghosts was Lucian of Samosata in the 2nd century AD. In his tale "The Doubter" (circa 150 AD) he relates how Democritus "the learned man from Abdera in Thrace" lived in a tomb outside the city gates in order to prove that cemeteries were not haunted by the spirits of the departed. Lucian relates how he persisted in his disbelief despite practical jokes perpetrated by "some young men of Abdera" who dressed up in shrouds with skull masks in order to give him a fright.


Middle Ages
From the medieval period an apparition of a ghost is recorded from 1211, at the time of the Albigensian Crusade. Gervase of Tilbury, Marshal of Arles, wrote that the image of Guilhem, a boy recently murdered in the forest, appeared in his cousin's home in Beaucaire, near Avignon. This series of "visits" lasted all of the summer. Through his cousin, who spoke for him, the boy allegedly held conversations with anyone who wished, until the local priest requested to speak to the boy directly, leading to an extended disquisition on theology. The boy narrated the trauma of death and the unhappiness of his fellow souls in Purgatory, and reported that God was most pleased with the ongoing Crusade against the Cathar heretics, launched three years earlier. The time of the Albigensian Crusade in southern France was marked by intense and prolonged warfare, this constant bloodshed and dislocation of populations being the context for these reported visits by the murdered boy.

Renaissance to Romanticism

John Dee and Edward Kelley evoking a spiritRenaissance magic took a revived interest in the occult, including necromancy. The Child ballad Sweet William's Ghost (1868) recounts the story of a ghost returning to beg a woman to free him from his promise to marry her, as he obviously cannot being dead; her refusal would mean his damnation. This reflects a popular British belief that the dead would haunt their lovers if they took up with a new love without some formal release. The Unquiet Grave expresses a belief even more widespread, found in various locations over Europe: ghosts can stem from the excessive grief of the living, whose mourning interferes with the dead's peaceful rest. In many folktales from around the world, the hero arranges for the burial of a dead man. Soon after, he gains a companion who aids him and, in the end, the hero's companion reveals that he is in fact the dead man. Instances of this include the Italian fairy tale Fair Brow and the Swedish The Bird 'Grip'.

Modern period
In 1848, the Fox sisters of Hydesfield in New York State claimed to have communication with the disembodied spirits of the dead and launched the Spiritualist movement, which claimed many adherents in the nineteenth century. The claims of spiritualists and others as to the reality of ghosts were investigated by the Society for Psychical Research, founded in London in 1882. The Society set up a Committee on Haunted Houses and a Literary Committee which looked at the literature on the subject. Apparitions of the recently deceased, at the moment of their death, to their friends and relations, were very commonly reported. One celebrated example was the strange appearance of Vice-Admiral Sir George Tryon, walking through the drawing room of his family home in Eaton Square, London, looking straight ahead, without exchanging a word to anyone, in front of several guests at a party being given by his wife on 22 June 1893 whilst he was supposed to be in a ship of the Mediterranean Squadron, manoeuvering off the coast of Syria. Subsequently it was reported that he had gone down with his ship, the HMS Victoria, that very same night, after it had collided with the HMS Camperdown following an unexplained and bizarre order to turn the ship in the direction of the other vessel. Such crisis apparitions have received serious study by parapsychologists with various explanations given to account for them, including telepathy, as well as the traditional view that they represent disembodied spirits.

Summoning or exorcising the shades of the departed is an item of belief and religious practice for spiritualists and practitioners of ritual magic. According to a poll conducted in 2005 by the Gallup Organization about 32% of Americans "believe in the existence of ghosts."
By culture

Asia
Yūrei (幽霊?) are figures in Japanese folklore, analogous to Western legends of ghosts. The name consists of two kanji, 幽 (yū), meaning "faint" or "dim" and 霊 (rei), meaning "soul" or "spirit." Like their Western counterparts, they are thought to be spirits kept from a peaceful afterlife. See also Yokai, Obake.

Ancestor worship is central to Chinese folk religion. Other than the Qingming and Chongyang festivals, descendants should pay tributes to ancestors during the Zhongyuanjie, more commonly known as the Ghost Festival. Traditionally, other than the tombstones or urn-covers, descendants are expected to install altar (神台) in their homes to which they would pay homage regularly in the day, with joss sticks and tea. The ancestors, parents or grandparents, are worshiped or venerated as if they are still living. See also Chinese ghosts, Ghosts in Malay culture, ghost money, Hell bank note.

The Hindu Garuda Purana discusses ghosts. Ghosts in Bengali culture are a recurrent motives both in fairy tales and in modern day Bengali literature as well, references to ghosts may be often found. It is believed that the spirits of those who cannot find peace in the afterlife or die unnatural deaths remain on Earth. The common word for ghosts in Bengali is bhut ( ভূত).

In Central and Northern Asia, Shaman spirit guides play a central role.


Near East and Mediterranean
The Greek underworld (Tartarus) from its Near Eastern templates (compare Hebrew Gehenna and Babylonian Kurnugia), depicts the spirits of the deceased as "shadows" languishing underground. They can be visited by heroes venturing a descent to the underworld, or they can be conjured as apparitions by seers or necromancers. The Christian Hell is a direct continuation of these underworlds. The Greek Hero cult involved the apotheosis of selected individuals after their death.

Ishara was a Near Eastern goddess associated with the underworld. Her name may continue a Proto-Indo-European notion, cognate to Welsh Gwen-hwyfar (Irish Find-abair, from Proto-Celtic *windo-seibaro- "white ghost".


Pre-Columbian Americas
In Aztec mythology, the Cihuateteo were the spirits of human women who died in childbirth. They haunted crossroads at night, stealing children and causing sicknesses, especially seizures and madness, and seducing men to sexual misbehavior

European folklore and modern Western culture

"spirit photography" by William HopeBelief in ghosts in European folklore is characterized by the recurring fear of "returning" or revenant deceased which may harm the living. This includes the Scandinavian gjenganger, the Romanian strigoi, the Serbian vampir, the Greek vrykolakas, etc. British folklore is particularly notable for its numerous haunted locations.

Popular folklore has always been dismissed as superstition by the educated elite, but of course belief in the soul and an afterlife remained near universal until the emergence of atheism in the 18th century "Age of Enlightenment." In the 19th century spiritism resurrected "belief in ghosts" as the object of systematic inquiry and popular opinion in Western culture remains divided.

The Spiritism of the 19th century has exerted a lasting influence on the Western perception of ghosts. Spiritist séances together with pseudoscientific explanations like ectoplasm and spirit photography appeared to give a quality of scientific method to apparitions. Such approaches to the "paranormal" have become a familiar topos in Western popular culture. The Ghost Club, founded in London in 1862, was an early "ghost hunting" organization. Famous members of the club have included Charles Dickens, Sir William Crookes, Sir William Fletcher Barrett and Harry Price

In modern culture and fiction

19th century etching by John Leech of the Ghost of Christmas Present as depicted in Charles Dickens' A Christmas CarolGhosts are prominent in the popular cultures of various nations. The ghost story is ubiquitous across all cultures from oral folktales to works of literature. The 5th century BC play Oresteia contains the ghost of Agamemnon, one of the first ghosts to appear in a work of fiction.

Legends about haunted houses have long appeared in literature. Haunting is used as a plot device in gothic or horror fiction or, more lately, paranormal-based fiction. Roman-era authors Plautus, Pliny the Younger and Lucian wrote stories about haunted houses, as did the Arabian Nights (such as the tale of "Ali the Cairene and the Haunted House in Baghdad

Literature

One of the more recognizable ghosts in English literature is the shade of Hamlet's murdered father in the play The Tragical History of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. In Hamlet, it is the ghost who demands that Prince Hamlet investigate his "murder most foul" and seek revenge upon his usurping uncle, King Claudius. In the play Macbeth, Banquo returns as a ghost to the dismay of the title character.

One of the key early appearances by ghosts in a gothic tale was The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole in 1764. Other famous apparitions are the ghosts of A Christmas Carol, where the ghosts of his former colleague Jacob Marley, Christmas Past, Christmas Present and Christmas Yet to Come help Ebenezer Scrooge see the error of his ways.

Oscar Wilde's comedy The Canterville Ghost has been adapted for film and television on several occasions. Henry James's The Turn of the Screw has also appeared in a number of adaptations, notably the film The Innocents and Benjamin Britten's opera The Turn of the Screw. Noël Coward's play Blithe Spirit, later made into a film, places a more humorous slant on the phenomenon of haunting of individuals and specific locations.

Washington Irving's short story "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" (1820), based on an earlier German folktale, features a Headless Horseman. It has been adapted for film and television many times, most notably in Sleepy Hollow, a successful 1999 feature film. Legends from further afield have been featured in literature; Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things is a 1904 collection of Japanese folk tales on ghosts by Lafcadio Hearn, and was later made into a film.

Peter Underwood is noted for his ghost books containing ostensibly true ghost stories such as Ghosts of Borley, while Patrick Lafcadio Hearn published books of Japanese ghost stories

Film and television

Films including or centering on ghosts are common, and span a variety of genres; the works of Shakespeare, Dickens and Wilde have all been made into cinematic versions. Novel-length tales have been difficult to adapt to cinema, although that of The Haunting of Hill House to The Haunting in 1963 is an exception.


Film poster for "The Ghost and Mrs. Muir"Sentimental depictions have been more popular on cinema than horror, and include the 1947 film The Ghost and Mrs. Muir, which was later adapted to television with a successful 1968-70 TV series. A common theme in romance or drama is the ghost as a benign guide or messenger, often with unfinished business, such as 1989's Field of Dreams, the 1990 film Ghost, the 1993 comedy Heart and Souls, and the 2003 thriller Gothika.

Genuine horror films include 1944's The Uninvited, 1945's Dead of Night, 1980's The Fog, and 1988s The Lady in White. Freddy Krueger of the A Nightmare on Elm Street series is a notable modern ghost.

Asian cinema has been adept at producing horror films about ghosts, such as the 1998 Japanese film Ringu (remade in America as The Ring in 2002), and the Pang brothers' 2002 film The Eye.

Ghosts have been popular in children's media such as Casper the Friendly Ghost, created in the 1930s and appearing in comics, animated cartoons and a eventually 1995 feature film, his cousin Spooky and the Ghostly Trio.

Popularised in such films as the 1984 comedy Ghostbusters, the ghost hunting theme has been utilised in reality television series particularly Ghost Hunters and Ghost Hunters International, but also Most Haunted, and A Haunting. It is also represented in children's television by such programs as The Ghost Hunter and Canada's own Ghost Trackers'.

Paranormal and scientific explanations
Some researchers, such as Professor Michael Persinger (Laurentian University, Canada), have speculated that changes in geomagnetic fields (created, e.g., by tectonic stresses in the Earth's crust or solar activity) could stimulate the brain's temporal lobes and produce many of the experiences associated with hauntings. This theory has been tested in various ways. Some scientists have examined the relationship between the time of onset of unusual phenomena in allegedly haunted locations and any sudden increases in global geomagnetic activity. Others have investigated whether the location of alleged hauntings is associated with certain types of magnetic activity. Finally, a third strand of work has involved laboratory studies in which stimulation of the temporal lobe with transcerebral magnetic fields has elicited subjective experiences that strongly parallel phenomena associated with hauntings. All of this work is controversial; it has attracted a large amount of debate and disagreement. Sound is thought to be another cause of supposed sightings. Frequencies lower than 20 hertz are called infrasound and are normally inaudible, but scientists Richard Lord and Richard Wiseman have concluded that infrasound can cause humans to experience bizarre feelings in a room, such as anxiety, extreme sorrow, a feeling of being watched, or even the chills. Carbon monoxide poisoning, which can cause changes in perception of the visual and auditory systems, was recognized as a possible explanation for haunted houses as early as 1921.

According to the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, there is to date no credible scientific evidence that any location is inhabited by spirits of the dead.

Critics of "eyewitness ghost sightings" suggest that limitations of human perception and ordinary physical explanations can account for such sightings; for example, air pressure changes in a home causing doors to slam, or lights from a passing car are reflected through a window at night. Pareidolia, an innate tendency to recognize patterns in random perceptions, is what some skeptics believe causes people to believe that they have seen ghosts. Reports of ghosts "seen out of the corner of the eye" may be accounted for by the sensitivity of human peripheral vision. According to skeptical investigator Joe Nickell:

...peripheral vision is very sensitive and can easily mislead, especially late at night, when the brain is tired and more likely to misinterpret sights and sounds.

Nickell also states that a person's belief that a location is haunted may cause them to interpret mundane events as confirmations of a haunting:

Once the idea of a ghost appears in a household . . . no longer is an object merely mislaid. . . . There gets to be a dynamic in a place where the idea that it's haunted takes on a life of its own. One-of-a-kind quirks that could never be repeated all become further evidence of the haunting.

Saturday, July 11, 2009

المريخ يشبه الارض




قال علماء أميركيون ان بيانات جمعتها مركبة "فينيكس لاندر" على كوكب المريخ تشير الى أن أجزاء منه تشبه الأرض، بما في ذلك المناظر الطبيعية والتاريخ الجيولوجي والمياه والمناخ.
وشرح البروفيسور مارك ليمون من جامعة "تكساس" الذي شارك في دراسات كثيرة عن المريخ بالتعاون مع وكالة الفضاء الأميركية (ناسا)، أن "مركبة 'فينيكس' هبطت على المريخ للبحث عن الطبقات الجليدية ووجدتها على الفور، في منطقة مليئة بالجليد تحت بضع إنشات من سطح الارض، والمنطقة باردة الآن لكنها كانت أكثر دفئا في الماضي".
وأوضح ليمون أن "فينيكس" وجدت موقعاً على المريخ يشبه مناخها مناخ بعض المناطق شديدة البرودة والجافة على الأرض القادرة على تطوير أشكال الحياة. ولفت الى أن تحليلات التربة أظهرت وجود مصادر طاقة محتملة ومصادر أوكسيجين قد يكون مصدراً للحياة على كوكب المريخ وآثار كالسيت، ممّا يدل على وجود مياه سائلة في الماضي. ووجدت المركبة أيضاً أنماطاً للطقس شبيهة لتلك التي نراها على كوكب الأرض، وحتى رقاقات ثلج، مما حمل العلماء على الاعتقاد بأن الثلوج كانت تتساقط على سطح الكوكب

U.S. scientists said that data collected by the vehicle, "Phoenix Lander" on Mars suggest that parts of it like the Earth , including the landscape and the geological history, climate and water.
He explained Professor Mark Lemon of the University of "Texas", which participated in many studies of Mars, in cooperation with the U.S. space agency (NASA), the "composite 'Phoenix' landed on Mars to search for ice sheets and found them immediately, in an area full of ice under a few inches of surface of the earth, and the region as a cold now, but it was much warmer in the past. "
The Lemon, "The Phoenix" and found a site on Mars-like climate, the climate of some areas, extremely cold and dry on the ground are able to develop forms of life. He pointed out that the soil analysis showed the presence of energy sources and potential sources of oxygen may be a source of life on Mars and the effects of Calcite, which indicates the presence of liquid water in the past. And found the vehicle of the weather patterns are also similar to those we see on Earth, and even ice chips, which led scientists to believe that the snow was falling on the surface of the planet.

دراسة: اكتشاف مادة قادرة على إطالة العمر لسنوات عديدة...Scientific Study: the discovery of material which is capable of prolonging life for many years



قالت دراسة علمية إن مادة طبيعية تدخل في العقاقير المستخدمة لمنع أجساد المرضى الذين يجرون عمليات زرع أعضاء من رفض العضو الجديد، نجحت في إطالة عمر فئران المختبرات بشكل لافت. ولفتت الدراسة التي نشرتها مجلة "الطبيعة" أن ذكور الفئران التي تلقت مادة "رابامايسين" عاشت لفترة تتجاوز المعدل العادي لحياة نظرائها بتسعة في المائة، بينما بلغت النسبة لدى الإناث 13 %.
وجرت الدراسة تحت إشراف معهد دراسات الشيخوخة في الولايات المتحدة، وذلك في ثلاثة مختبرات منفصلة وباستخدام ألفي فأرة ذات سمات جينية متشابهة، وقد جرى منح الفئران مادة "رابامايسين" بعد 600 يوم على ولادتها، أي ما يعادل 60 عاماً من حياة البشر. وبالرغم من أن التجربة بدأت في فترة متأخرة من أعمار الفئران، إلا أنها نجحت في إطالة أعمار الذكور بمعدل 101 يوم، في حين زادت أعمار الإناث 151 يوماً، مقارنة بالفئران التي لم تتلق المادة، أي ما يعادل قرابة 13 عاما لدى البشر. وقال راندي سترونغ، الطبيب المختص في مركز الصحة بجامعة تكساس، والذي ساعد في إعداد الدراسة، إن هذا الاختبار يظهر إمكانية تأخير الشيخوخة باستخدام العقاقير، وإن كانت الطريقة التي تعمل مادة "رابامايسين" من خلالها غير واضحة بعد، وفقاً لمجلة "تايم". ويفترض العلماء أن للمادة تأثيراً معيناً على الاستجابات العصبية للجسم تجاه المغذيات الطبيعية، كما أنها تعزز القدرة على مواجهة التوتر.
ويشرح سترونغ قائلاً "نفترض أن المادة تخدع الخلايا عندما يفقد الإنسان وزنه بسبب الشيخوخة، حيث تعتقد أن الجسم ما يزال محافظاً على وزنه، فتعمد إلى مواصلة إنتاج البروتينات وتستخدمها بالطريقة الأمثل". ويضيف أن منح الفئران "رابامايسين" لم يقلل فرص تعرضها للأمراض العادية، ولكنه اكتفى بتأخير عوارض الشيخوخة لديها. ولكن استخدام المادة على الإنسان ما يزال دونه الكثير من العقبات، أبرزها تأثير "رابامايسين" على جهاز المناعة البشري، إذ ثبت أنه يضعف مقاومته للأمراض ويسهل تعرضه للالتهابات الطفيلية، كما يرفع من نسبة الدهون في الدم وقد يتسبب بأمراض القلب.

(سي إن إن)


The scientific study showed that the natural substance within the drug used to prevent the bodies of patients who are transplants from rejection of the new member, succeeded in prolonging the lives of laboratory mice is remarkable. The study, published in "Nature" that the male mice that received the article "Rabamaysin" lived for a period beyond the normal rate for the life of her nine per cent, while the figure was 13% female.
The study was conducted under the auspices of the Institute for the Study of aging in the United States, in three separate laboratories using two mouse genetic characteristics are similar, have been awarded the rats of "Rabamaysin" after the 600 day of birth, which is equivalent to 60 years of human life. Although the experiment started in the late age of mice, but they succeeded in prolonging the lives of the male rate of 101 days, whereas female age 151 days, compared to rats that had received the article, which is equivalent to nearly 13 years in humans. Said Randy Strong, competent doctor in the University of Texas Health Center, which assisted in the preparation of the study, this test shows the possibility of delaying the aging the use of drugs, although the manner in which the article "Rabamaysin" which is not yet clear, according to the magazine "Time." The scientists assumed that the impact of certain responses to the nerve of the body of natural nutrients, and they also enhance the ability to cope with tension.
Strong explains, saying "we assume that the article fool when cells lose weight because of human aging, as it believes that the body is still kept his weight, deliberately to continue the production of proteins and used the optimal way." He adds that the granting of rats "Rabamaysin" did not reduce the chances of exposure to ordinary diseases, but only to delay the symptoms of aging infrastructure. But the use of the material on the human remains without a lot of obstacles, most notably the impact of "Rabamaysin" on the human immune system, which proved to be a weakened resistance to disease and easily subjected to parasitic infections, and increase the proportion of fat in the blood cause heart disease.

(CNN)